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Indicate whether each of the following statements is describing a mediation hypothesis, a third-variable problem, or a moderator result. First, identify the key bivariate relationship. Next, decide whether the extra variable comes between the two key variables or is causing the two key variables simultaneously. Then, draw a sketch of each explanation, following the examples in Figure 9.14 in Chapter 9 of your textbook.
Having a dog is associated with a longer lifespan because people with fewer health problems are more able to have dogs, and people who have fewer health problems live longer.
Having a dog is associated with a longer lifespan, but especially among people living alone; the relationship is weaker among people who live with others.
Having a dog is associated with a longer lifespan because people who have dogs get more exercise and exercise makes them healthier (and live longer).
Being a victim of sibling aggression is associated with poor mental health in childhood, but the link is especially strong for later-born children and weaker in firstborn children.
Sibling aggression is associated with poor childhood mental health because child victims of sibling aggression are more likely to feel lonely at home. Sibling aggression leads to loneliness, which leads to mental health problems.
Sibling aggression is associated with poor childhood mental health only because of parental conflict. Sibling aggression is more likely among parents who argue frequently, and arguing also affects kids’ mental health.